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Panta Rhei Benchmark Dataset Publication

The Panta Rhei working groups “Changes in flood risk” and “Drought in the Anthropocene” have jointly compiled and published with open access the "Panta Rhei benchmark dataset: socio-hydrological data of paired events of floods and droughts" and now want to motivate its further use! 

The data is available to the public through the GFZ Data Services ( and the data paper is published as Kreibich et al. (2023) Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 2009–2023,

The dataset comprises socio-hydrological data of 45 paired events, i.e. two floods or two droughts that occurred in the same area; and it contains:

(1) detailed review-style reports about the events;

(2) key variables which characterize management shortcomings, hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and impacts of all events; and

(3)  the indicators of change that indicate the differences between the first and second event of a pair.

The dataset enables comparative analyses across all the paired events based on the indicators of change and allows for detailed context- and location-specific assessments based on the extensive data and reports. The dataset can support the development and benchmarking of socio-hydrological models and, as such, can support solving the following unsolved problem in hydrology: “How can we extract information from available data on human and water systems in order to inform the building process of socio-hydrological models and conceptualizations?” (Blöschl et al., 2019,

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